Pinnacle Enterprises Canada
Healthcare Safety Info-eLink™

"Dedicated to Promoting Healthcare Occupational Health and Safety Management Performance Excellence and Safe Patient Care"


To successfully achieve high quality safe, error-free patient care, continuous improvement of occupational health and safety working conditions must be a priority. My goal in this effort is to provide a high quality comprehensive user-friendly website with well-organized Internet links to credible sources of health and safety information primarily focused on the healthcare sector. Healthcare Safety Info-eLink™ is a not-for-profit service provided as a personal contribution by Christopher Lipowski, CRSP, for occupational health, safety, and industrial hygiene professionals who are dedicated to advancing healthcare safety excellence for staff and patients.


Maximize Efforts to Improve Safe Patient Care in Hospitals through improving Healthcare Workplace Health and Safety Conditions and Practices. To close the gap between best practice and common practice by encouraging hospitals to reach levels of quality and safety that are comparable to those of the best high-reliability organizations.


Data on the Canadian workforce has consistently indicated that healthcare workers are at greater risk of workplace injuries and more mental health problems than any other occupational group. In the U.S. for example:

Health Care is the second-fastest-growing sector of the U.S. economy, employing over 12 million workers. Women represent nearly 80% of the health care work force. Health care workers face a wide range of hazards on the job, including needlestick injuries, back injuries, latex allergy, violence, and stress. Although it is possible to prevent or reduce health care worker exposure to these hazards, health care workers actually are experiencing increasing numbers of occupational injuries and illnesses. Rates of occupational injury to health care workers have risen over the past decade. By contrast, two of the most hazardous industries, agriculture and construction, are safer today than they were a decade ago, NIOSH.

In addition to this unacceptable situation, many patients suffer preventable care-related adverse events (AEs) during hospitalization. AEs among hospital patients are unintended injuries or complications resulting in death, disability or prolonged hospital stay that arise from health care management. A study in 2004 funded by CIHI and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research found that 7.5% of adult medical or surgical patients suffered adverse events in hospital, about one third of which were deemed preventable. Although most patients recover within six months, each year between 9,250 and 23,750 Canadian adults experience a “preventable” adverse event in hospital and later die, according to the study, Baker et al. 2004. The Institute of Medicine's "To Err is Human: Building a Safer Health System" reported: "The human cost of medical errors is high. Based on the findings of one major study, medical errors kill some 44,000 people in U.S. hospitals each year. Another study puts the number much higher, at 98,000." IOM. In Canada, healthcare acquired infections or nosocomial infections, affect more than 220,000 people annually resulting in excess of 8,000 deaths in Canadian hospitals each year. Therefore, patient safety in Canadian healthcare organizations has become an increasingly important topic and led to the creation of the Canadian Patient Safety Institute (CPSI). A study by the CPSI estimated the economic burden of adverse events in Canada in 2009-2010 was 1.1 billion dollars. This estimate did not include the direct costs of care after hospital discharge, or societal costs of illness, such as loss of functional status or occupational productivity. To address the issue of identifying strategies for improving patient care, much valuable effort has been focused on application of new technologies, developing better communication and coordination among clinicians, and creation of a patient adverse (sentinel) event information database to be shared by hospitals for learning purposes, Canadian College of Health Service Executives - ppt. However, a growing body of research indicate that healthcare worker health and safety conditions are not just an important but an essential factor associated with the quality of patient care, Yassi, A. For example, OSHA (U.S.) reports that workplace safety also affects patient care. OSHA recommends hospitals develop a health and safety management system with a holistic approach that integrates patient safety and employee safety programs, Safety and Health Management Systems: A Road Map for Hospitals. Dr. Lucian Leape endorses OSHA Programs on Health Care Worker Safety: "Many of us in medicine have long recognized that hospitals can be dangerous places not only for patients who are at risk of experiencing a medical error or an adverse event, but also for nurses, physicians, and other health care workers", Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) / National Patient Safety Foundation (NPSF). The 2004 Canadian Adverse Events Study suggested, "The greatest gains in improving patient safety will come from modifying the work environment of healthcare professionals, creating better defenses for averting adverse events and mitigating their effects", The Role of Healthcare Environments in Shaping a Safety Culture - Lowe, G.S. The Joint Commission published a monograph recently stating that greater awareness of the potential synergies between patient and worker health and safety activities is required, Improving Patient and Worker Safety. One major step that healthcare institutions can take toward championing patient and healthcare worker safety, according to the monograph, is becoming a high-reliability healthcare organization (HRO) -- described as "systems operating in hazardous conditions that have fewer than their fair share of adverse events". The monograph also identifies functional management systems and processes, strategies and tools that have been used to successfully integrate health and safety activities. A report by The Lucian Leape Institute presents details on healthcare safety challenges. Therefore, efforts to increase the quality of hospital occupational health and safety conditions and practices can be expected to have a direct positive impact on patient safety outcomes and an overall reduction in healthcare costs, Nichol, K.
One strategy to achieve sustainable healthcare safety performance excellence is to implement an "Integrated Healthcare Safety Management System", a holistic approach that manages patient and staff safety programs together. Since the first step toward solving a problem is to understand it and knowledge is essential for advancing meaningful safety improvement initiatives to their maturity, this web service was founded to provide a simplified and efficient means of accessing credible, useful healthcare safety information. As well, there is a link at the bottom of this page that provides useful health and safety information for the general public.
Christopher J. Lipowski, CRSP


Christopher J. Lipowski, CRSP
Healthcare Occupational Health and Safety Specialist
Principal, Pinnacle Enterprises Canada
first and former McGill University Health and Safety Officer
is founder and webmaster of Healthcare Safety Info-eLink™
This website is dedicated to the memory of Z.J. Lipowski, M.D.
author of:
"The Theory of Attractive Stimulus Overload"

"Affluence Information Inputs and Health"
"Psychosomatic Medicine and Liaison Psychiatry, Selected Papers"

Linkedin - Christopher Lipowski


Professional Ethics For the OHS Professional
Dr. Peter Strahlendorf (ppt)

International Code of Ethics for Occupational Health Professionals (pdf)

American Board of Industrial Hygiene Code of Ethics



Psychological barriers to safety "Cognitive shortcuts, senior leadership behaviours may be harming your culture" - (Renée Gendron, Canadian Occupational Safety, Feb 5, 2018)

StressAssess Workplace Edition - StressAssess is an online survey tool designed for workers and managers who are interested in assessing psychosocial hazards in the workplace, to anonymously, collectively and confidently identify issues (Occupational Health Clinics for Ontario Workers, 2018)

Burnout Among Health Professionals and Its Effect on Patient Safety - Audrey Lyndon, PhD (Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality)

500,000 Canadians miss work each week due to mental health concerns (By Carmen Chai Senior National Online Journalist, Health Global News)

National Academy of Medicine Launches 'Action Collaborative' to Promote Clinician Well-Being and Combat Burnout, Depression, and Suicide Among Health Care Workers (The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine)

Psychological Health and Safety in the Workplace - "Psychological health and safety (PHS) is embedded in the way people interact with one another on a daily basis, it is part of the way working conditions and management practices are structured. Bearing this in mind mental health is a significant challenge across workplaces. The Canadian Mental Health Commission has reported that, in any given year, one in five people in Canada will experience a mental health problem or illness, with a cost to the economy well in excess of 50 billion dollars. A Psychological Health and Safety Management System can help an organization identify hazards that can contribute to psychological harm to the worker. It is a preventive approach that assesses your workplaces practices and identifies those areas of concern." (CSA Group - SPE Z1003)

How to facilitate the adoption of organizational interventions to prevent mental health problems in the workplace? - ( IRSST - October 10, 2017)

Health and Psychosocial Issues (Quebec Portail santé mieux-être)

Healthy Work Environments Best Practice Guidelines (pdf)

Mental Health Commission of Canada findings set a 'new normal' in the workplace (Maria Gergin - Borden Ladner Gervais LLP)

Case Study Research Project Findings - The National Standard of Canada for Psychological Health and Safety in the Workplace, 2014-2017 (Mental Health Commission of Canada) (pdf)

Health-care organizations commit to improving mental health - HealthCareCAN - (Thomson Reuters, Occupational Safety)

Improving Work Functioning and Mental Health of Health Care Employees Using an E-Mental Health Approach to Workers' Health Surveillance: Pretest–Posttest Study - {"Working as a nurse involves dealing with a range of potential workplace stressors, such as psychological and emotional demands [1]. Unsurprisingly, mental health complaints including burnout, posttraumatic stress, anxiety, and depression are quite common in nurses [2]. Impaired mental health can have adverse effects endangering the health and safety of the nurses themselves but also of their patients [3,4]. Consequently, it seems worthwhile to pay preventive attention to the mental health and work functioning of nurses."} - Sarah M. Ketelaar et al (Saf Health Work. 2014 Dec; 5(4): 216–221)


As lawsuits mount, doctors insist surgical mesh is an important tool (CTV W5 News, March 16, 2018)

Concerns about Surgical Mesh for POP (U.S. FDA)

Surgical Mesh - Complications Associated with Transvaginal Implantation for the Treatment of Stress Urinary Incontinence and Pelvic Organ Prolapse - Notice to Hospitals (Health Canada, May 13, 2014)

A support tool for choosing respiratory protection against bioaerosols (IRSST)

Work-Related Asthma and Mitigating Employee Exposures to Cleaning Chemicals and Disinfectants (ABIH, March 12, 2018)

Work-related Asthma Prevention Program - Health Care Professionals and Work-Related Asthma (California Department of Public Health)

What You Need to Know About ISO 45001: It's a Leading Concern.
" Top management needs to set the tone for ISO 45001 conversation throughout the organization. If leadership is viewed as unwilling converts who resist a change for good and, instead, operate solely on the singular principle of meeting minimum requirements rather than wholly embracing the underlying philosophy of the standard, there will be potential risk for repeated accidents and efforts to improve the safety culture. The fundamental difference of from previous standards is an emphasis on the need for a responsible approach from the very top tier of management to provide a safe workplace embracing concerns for worker safety and well-being as the basis for decision making" - Chris J Ward, Intelex Technologies Inc. (pdf)

ISO/FDIS 45001:2017 – Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems- Final Publication of ISO 45001 Coming in March 2018 (ANSI)

Moving ahead with ISO 45001 for safety and health at work: 2017-04-24 - (Standards Council of Canada)

Ontario Nurses Association - "In Ontario, the health-care sector has some of the highest rates of workplace injuries and illnesses – even greater than construction, mining and manufacturing. Yet, health-care employers lag far behind their industrial counterparts in addressing occupational health and safety issues. If workers are not protected from health and safety hazards, patients and the public are not protected either"

Leading to Safety: How Top Organizational Leaders Impact Safety - Prepared for: WorkSafe Saskatchewan by: Sean Tucker, June 2016 (pdf)

More than 200,000 patients get infections every year while receiving healthcare in Canada; more than 8,000 of these patients die as a result - (Public Health Agency of Canada)

Approximately 10,000 Canadians Die Every Year as a Result an Infection Acquired in Health Care Buildings - Introduction to CSA Z317.13 - Public Health Ontario - (pdf)

OHTA and NIOSH Announce New Collaborative Partnership - The Occupational Hygiene Training Association (OHTA) has announced a new partnership with the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) of the United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS).
(The Occupational Hygiene Training Association (OHTA), Jan 22 2018)

The negative effects of workplace injury and illness on workplace safety climate perceptions and health care worker outcomes - Deirdre McCaughey et al. (Safety Science, Elsevier B.V., Volume 51, Issue 1, January 2013)

Culture of Safety - "The concept of safety culture originated outside health care, in studies of high reliability organizations, organizations that consistently minimize adverse events despite carrying out intrinsically complex and hazardous work. High reliability organizations maintain a commitment to safety at all levels, from frontline providers to managers and executives" (Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, June 2017)

CCHSA Accreditation: A Change Catalyst toward Healthier Work Environments - Wendy Nicklin and Melissa Barton (Longwoods Publishing Corporation, HealthcarePapers, 7(Sp) January 2007: 58-63.doi:10.12927/hcpap..18674)

Study of Leading Indicators for Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems in Healthcare (Ontario)
This project, funded by the Ministry of Labour, will examine a new approach to strengthening the occupational health and safety system in healthcare settings - "Ontario's healthcare sector employs more than 800,000 employees with hospitals being the largest employer. Every day, healthcare workers encounter physical risks from repetitive lifting and moving, chemical risks, risks of infection and threats of violence. For the past five years the healthcare sector has ranked second highest for lost-time injury rates (injuries that result in lost time from work) among the 16 Ontario sectors, with female healthcare workers currently ranked the highest among all occupations for lost-time claims (WSIB, 2014). In addition, approximately $2.5B is spent yearly on occupational injuries (WSIB, 2012). Despite an increased focus on improving Ontario's Occupational Health and Safety System, the injury statistics are not improving significantly. One of the potential keys to changing this trend is the development of a culture of healthy and safe workplaces, including the effective utilization of leading indicators within Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems (OHSMS). Leading indicators are workplace characteristics that precede occupational health and safety outcomes and, if changed, are expected to change these outcomes. Using leading indicators to measure health and safety has been common practice in high-risk industries; however, this shift has not occurred in healthcare. Therefore, the aim of this study is to conduct a longitudinal study implementing leading indicators and evaluating the effectiveness of this intervention on improving selected health and safety workplace indicators" (Ontario Ministry of Labour / Public Services Health and Safety Association)

Physician engagement: A Multistep Approach to Improving Well-Being and Purpose - Alan H. Rosenstein, MD, MBA (June 1, 2015, Patient Safety and Quality Healthcare)

Developing a Safety Culture in the Healthcare Workplace - UL is an American safety consulting and certification company

Optimizing Safety Through Leading Indicators by Carrie Young and Todd Lunsford | Sep 20, 2017, EHS Today)

Using lagging and leading indicators for the evaluation of occupational safety and health performance in industry
Int J Occup Saf Ergon. 2015 Jul 3; 21(3): 284–290

Overview of Best Practices in Occupational Health and Safety in the Healthcare Industry (Work Safe Alberta - May 2011)

Leading Indicators for Workplace Health and Safety: a user guide (Work Safe Alberta)

Study details extent of violence faced by hospital workers - (Sheryl Ubelacker, The Canadian Press, November 25, 2017)

Ontario expanding PTSD presumption to include nurses - Nurses would receive same coverage as paramedics, police officers (12/13/2017|

Flu may be spread just by breathing, new study shows; coughing and sneezing not required (Maryland School of Public Health - January 18, 2018)

U.S., World Still Not Ready for Another Flu Pandemic (Global Health NOW, Johns Hopkins School of Public Health - November 8, 2017)

The Next Pandemic: Hospital Management (AHC Media LLC)

Getting Ahead of the Next Pandemic: Is the World Ready? (CDC Newsroom - October 26, 2017)

Canadian Pandemic Influenza Preparedness: Planning Guidance for the Health Sector - (Government of Canada 2017-10-04)

Health problems and disinfectant product exposure among staff at a large multispecialty hospital (American Journal of Infection Control Volume 45, Issue 10, 1 October 2017, Pages 1133-1138)

The 11th Revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) is due by 2018

Multisociety guideline on reprocessing flexible GI endoscopes: 2016 update (Volume 85, No. 2 : 2017 Gastrointestinal Endoscopy)

Increasing exposure to blue light undermining health of workers - Blue light from digital screens, overhead lighting can cause insomnia (Linda Johnson, 12/15/2017| Canadian Occupational Safety)

Manual Material Lifting: a pain in the neck, back - "In Ontario, ergonomic interventions are legislated only for those in the health care sector and are especially limited in scope; They do not take into account injuries caused by repetitive, awkward or forceful work" - (Workers Health and Safety Centre of Ontario Federation)

NIOSH Launches Mobile Lifting Calculator App - (August 14, 2017)

Does Ontario's Occupational Health and Safety Act Address MSDs? - "Although there is no specific section in the Occupational Health and Safety Act or Regulations that is dedicated to workplace ergonomics or MSD hazards, there are many sections that are used by MOL inspectors to enforce protection of Ontario workers" (Ontario Ministry of Labour, 2009)

CSA-Z412-00 (R2016) - Guideline on Office Ergonomics

The work of emergency medical technician-paramedics: Understanding the risks in order to prevent musculoskeletal disorders (IRSST)

Covers for Hospital Bed Mattresses: Learn How to Keep Them Safe (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services)

Z1005-17 - Incident investigation - This Standard replaces CAN/CSA-Z796, Accident information, published in 1998 (Canadian Standards Association)

The Role of Food in Hospitals - Key informants noted that, as anchor institutions rooted in their communities, hospitals are role models for wellness, good nutrition, and healthy food. ... There is an increased understanding that patients need nutritious, appealing food that tastes good in order for them to eat, regain their strength, and heal (Tracy Murphy, HealthCareCAN)

Night Shift Work and Breast Cancer Incidence: Three Prospective Studies and Meta-analysis of Published Studies (R.C. Travis et al - JNCI J Natl Cancer Inst (2016) 108 (12)

Impact of workplace cancers widely underestimated - "Occupational cancer is the number 1 cause of workplace death" (by Amanda Silliker, Canadian Occupational Safety)

Workplace exposures account for a significant number of cancers in Ontario: Report - Solar radiation, asbestos among top cancer-causing exposures (Canadian Occupational Safety - 10/11/2017)

Costs related to asbestos exposure much higher than original estimates: IWH - Price tag of new cases of work-related mesothelioma, lung cancer soars to $2.35 billion (Canadian Occupational Safety - 09/19/2017)

The economic burden of lung cancer and mesothelioma due to occupational and para-occupational asbestos exposure - Emile Tompa et al - (BMJ: Occupational and Environmental Medicine)

The Government of Canada proposes new regulations to protect Canadians from exposure to asbestos (News Release, January 5, 2018) "Breathing in asbestos fibres is known to cause cancer and other devastating illnesses. Our government is committed to reducing the risks of exposure to asbestos. That's why we are moving forward with these regulations to ban asbestos and asbestos products. My department will continue to increase awareness of simple steps that Canadians can take to avoid exposure to asbestos." Ginette Petitpas Taylor, Minister of Health; "Too many Canadians know first-hand the devastating health problems that can result from exposure to asbestos at home or at work. By launching these new, tougher rules to stop the manufacture, import, use, and sale of asbestos, we are following through on our promise to protect all Canadians from exposure to this toxic substance." Catherine McKenna, Minister of Environment and Climate Change

Historic Changes to Ontario OHSA Effective Today (December 14 2017) - In the most far-reaching changes made to the Ontario Occupational Health & Safety Act (OHSA) in over 15 years, the government has moved to, amongst other matters, triple corporate OHS penalties and quadruple individual OHS penalties, effective today. "Effective today, corporations are liable to a fine of not more than $1,500,000 per charge. A surcharge of 25%, required under the Provincial Offences Act, is in addition to those penalties"
(Mathews, Dinsdale & Clark LLP)

Federal government revises occupational exposure limit for asbestos - Employers must have asbestos exposure management program - 07/13/2017 (Canadian Occupational Safety - Thomson Reuters)

Asbestos-Linked Cancer on the Rise (Carcinogens in the News - CAREX Canada)

Malignant Mesothelioma Mortality — United States, 1999–2015 - "Despite regulatory actions and decline in asbestos use, the annual number of malignant mesothelioma deaths remains substantial. Contrary to past projections, the number of malignant mesothelioma deaths has been increasing. The continuing occurrence of mesothelioma deaths, particularly among younger populations, underscores the need for maintaining efforts to prevent exposure and for ongoing surveillance to monitor temporal trends." - (CDC)

Respirable Crystalline Silica: Breathe Easier - CAREX Canada reports that approximately 380,000 Canadians are exposed to silica at work, primarily in the construction sector. According to 2011 cancer statistics from CAREX, 570 lung cancer cases (2.4% overall) were attributed to occupational exposure to crystalline silica in Canada. (CCOHS)

Silica (Crystalline) - (CAREX Canada)

Control of Drywall Sanding Dust Exposures - "When silica is present, workers may also face an increased risk of silicosis and lung cancer" - (CDC)

Developing a Silica Exposure Control Plan (WorkSafe BC)


Dust Sampling, Equipment Choice, Equipment Use, Interpreting Results - Bill Walsh, CIH, Galson Laboratories (pdf)

Radon in the workplace (Ontario Ministry of Labour)

Antibiotic / Antimicrobial Resistance (CDC)

WHO publishes list of bacteria for which new antibiotics are urgently needed

Economic burden of healthcare-associated infections: an American perspective - Patricia W Stone, PhD, FAAN

"We are not ready": Experts warn world is unprepared for next Ebola-size outbreak (CBC)

Antibiotic Prescribing and Use Be Antibiotics Aware (formerly Get Smart about Antibiotics) is a national effort to help fight antibiotic resistance and improve antibiotic prescribing and use (Antibiotic Prescribing and Use - CDC)

Nurses' uniforms: How many bacteria do they carry after one shift? (J Public Health Epidemiol. 2012 Dec; 4(10): 311–315)

Study Shows Nurses' Scrubs Become Contaminated with Bacteria in Hospitals - Sarah Avery (The Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America - Aug. 29, 2017)

Are Hospital Floors an Underappreciated Reservoir for Transmission of Clostridium Difficile and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus?

Drug-resistant 'nightmare bacteria' show worrisome ability to diversify and spread (Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health)

Hospital Sinks May Be Awash in 'Superbugs' (MedlinePlus, 2017)

Antibiotic-resistant plasmids flourish in hospital plumbing - (Science Daily - American Society for Microbiology, February 6, 2018)

NDM-1 Superbug - Dr. R V S N Sarma, MD., MSc (Canada) FIMSA, Senior Consultant physician

Candida auris Interim Recommendations for Healthcare Facilities and Laboratories (CDC)

Group A Streptococcal (GAS) Disease (CDC)

Herpes Simplex Surveillance Protocol for Ontario Hospitals – Ontario Hospital Association and the Ontario Medical Association (2016)

Indoor Particulate Matter (U.S. EPA)

Ultrafine Particles : Efficacy of N95 Respirators in Conditions Representative of Human Breathing (IRSST)

Printer Emitted Particles: Are they safe? (Center for Nanotechnology and Nanotoxicology, T.H. Chan Harvard School of Public Health)

Nanoparticle exposures from nano-enabled toner-based printing equipment and human health: state of science and future research needs - Pirela SV et - Crit Rev Toxicol. 2017 Sep;47(8):678-704.

Work Disability Prevention Management System Standard Development Project (CSA Group)

Moisture Control Guidance for Building Design, Construction and Maintenance - U.S. EPA (pdf)

Mold remediation in a hospital - Toxicol Ind Health. 2009 Oct-Nov; 25(9-10):723-30 (NCBI)

Prevention and Remediation Strategies for the Control and Removal of Fungal Growth (CDC)

Guillain-Barré syndrome (NIH)

The Potential for Airborne Dispersal of Clostridium difficile from Symptomatic Patients (Oxford Journals Volume 50, Issue 11)

Heater-Cooler Devices: Information for Health Care Providers and Staff at Health Care Facilities (U.S. FDA - March 28, 2017)

Robotic Surgical Tools Tough to Keep Clean - Findings suggest better cleaning procedures, more monitoring of instruments would help (MedlinePlus / NIH)

New NIOSH Center to Study Safety and Health Implications of Occupational Robots

NIOSH Study Finds Widespread Use of Scavenging Systems to Control Waste Anesthetic Gases During Medical Procedures, but Other Recommended Controls Lacking

Understanding the Role of Contaminated Air in Healthcare Acquired Infections (Webinar) - Infection Control Today

Z316.5-15 Fume Hoods and Exhaust Systems Standard - (CSA)

Laboratory Ventilation Codes and Standards - (Siemens Industry, Inc.)

Effects of work practices and upper body movements on the performance of a laboratory fume hood - Ahn, K. et al.,J. Chem. Health Safety (2016)

NIOSH List of Antineoplastic and Other Hazardous Drugs in Healthcare Settings, 2016 - (pdf)

Assessment of Occupational Exposure Risks to Sewage Workers (Epidemiology - Lippincott Williams & Wilkins)

A research university's rapid response to a fatal chemistry accident: Safety changes and outcomes (Journal of Chemical Health and Safety)

Formaldehyde Confirmed as Known Human Carcinogen -
The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine

Potential health hazards for students exposed to formaldehyde in the gross anatomy laboratory - Raja DS1, Sultana B. (J Environ Health. 2012 Jan-Feb;74(6):36-40)

Formaldehyde exposure of medical students and instructors and clinical symptoms during gross anatomy laboratory in Thammasat University - Lakchayapakorn K1, Watchalayarn P. (J Med Assoc Thai. 2010 Dec;93 Suppl 7:S92-8)

Formaldehyde Exposure in Gross Anatomy "Your classroom work in gross anatomy will expose you to formaldehyde. This document will inform you of the potential hazards formaldehyde exposure and describe the protective equipment you should wear and the procedures to follow to limit your exposure." - University of Pennsylvania, Environmental Health & Radiation Safety


The Quality Worklife-Quality Healthcare Collaborative defines a healthy healthcare workplace as: A work setting that takes a strategic and comprehensive approach to providing the physical, cultural, psychosocial and work/job design conditions that maximize health and well-being of healthcare providers, quality of patient outcomes and organizational performance. "A fundamental way to better healthcare is through healthier healthcare workplaces. It is unacceptable to work in, receive care in, govern, manage and fund unhealthy healthcare workplaces."QWQHC.

“Many healthcare leaders are reluctant to commit to the goal of “High-Reliability“ because they regard it as unrealistic, unachievable or a distraction from their current serious fiscal and regulatory pressures. One of the important roles for policymakers and stakeholders is to encourage, persuade and demand that healthcare organizations embark on this journey. The Joint Commission also encourages and invites them to join us on the journey to High-Reliability, because all patients deserve safe care.”
~ Mark R. Chassin, M.D., FACP, M.P.P., M.P.H. President and Chief Executive Officer, The Joint Commission

“Workplace safety is inextricably linked to patient safety. Unless caregivers are given the protection, respect, and support they need, they are more likely to make errors, fail to follow safe practices, and not work well in teams.”
~ National Patient Safety Foundation, Lucian Leape Institute.



Last updated March 2018

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